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  • High-Capacity Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images Based on Hierarchical Quad-Tree Coding and Multi-MSB Prediction

High-Capacity Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images Based on Hierarchical Quad-Tree Coding and Multi-MSB Prediction

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Nowadays, more and more researchers are interested in reversible data hiding in encrypted images (RDHEI), which can be applied in privacy protection and cloud storage. In this paper, a new RDHEI method on the basis of hierarchical quad-tree coding and multi-MSB (most significant bit) prediction is proposed. The content owner performs pixel prediction to obtain a prediction error image and explores the maximum embedding capacity of the prediction error image by hierarchical quad-tree coding before image encryption. According to the marked bits of vacated room capacity, the data hider can embed additional data into the room-vacated image without knowing the content of original image. Through the data hiding key and the encryption key, the legal receiver is able to conduct data extraction and image recovery separately. Experimental results show that the average embedding rates of the proposed method can separately reach 3.504 bpp (bits per pixel), 3.394 bpp, and 2.746 bpp on three well-known databases, BOSSBase, BOWS-2, and UCID, which are higher than some state-of-the-art methods.

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